Social Skill Development in Children with
FASD: A Pilot Program to Enhance Friendship Building
Friendships play an important role in children’s lives and
in their social development. Children who have strong friendships
are more likely to have high self-esteem and are less likely to
become involved in high-risk behavior (Social skills of children
and adolescents: Conceptualization, assessment, treatment.
Merrell and Gimpell, 1998). Further, close friendships tend to make
children more altruistic and help them develop a higher moral sensitivity
(Children’s friendships: The beginnings of intimacy.
Dunn, 2004). Information from parents and research studies indicates
that children with FASD have difficulty making and maintaining friendships.
Cognitive difficulties, lack of responsiveness to social cues, and
failure to consider the consequences of an action are factors that
may make social interactions challenging (Research in Developmental
Disabilities. Merrell & Holland, 1997) for these children.
Often, social skills must be specifically taught to children with
FASD to help them interact successfully with peers.
Experience with peer friendships promotes development of several
basic skills such as coordination of play behavior, imitation, turn-taking
in social exchanges, the ability to respond appropriately to a partner’s
characteristics and, perhaps most importantly, development of conflict
resolution skills (The role of friendship in psychological adjustment.
Bukowski, 2001). A pilot program designed by students from the Masters
of Occupational Therapy (MOT) program at the University of Washington
in Seattle sought to teach children with FASD the specific skills
necessary for developing and maintaining friendships.
A focus group held in February 2005 identified a large number of
children with FASD in Snohomish County, Washington, who were not
receiving services to help them develop friendships and social skills
(although there is a support group for teens with FASD in the area,
no such group is available for preteens and children). The MOT students
theorized that helping children develop friendship skills during
elementary school might result in more favorable outcomes and progress
the children to a more age-appropriate level. Based on parent input
in the focus groups that their children did not “know how
to make friends,” or even have an awareness of appropriate
social boundaries, the need to focus on the sub-skills necessary
for friendship building was identified (Administration project:
Friends are super club. Haynish & Swafford, 2005; unpublished).
In response to these needs, the MOT student group developed the
Kid’s Club to teach children with FASD how to understand important
social cues, build foundational friendship skills and handle social
participation. The group of 10 children, ages 6 through 11, met
seven Saturday mornings to focus on the skills of complimenting
others, taking turns, initiating play and maintaining self-control.
The group’s interactive process was designed to help children
learn appropriate peer relationship skills within an activity-based
curriculum. Program components included the following:
- The program utilized many sensory and movement-based activities
to support the children’s awareness and development of self-control
and self-regulatory behaviors.
- Activities for each week were based on the overall social goals
for the group and included fine- and gross-motor activities; activities
included friendship bowling, clay creations, puppet shows, relay
races and parachute challenges.
- As the children had varying ability levels, activities were
graded individually to allow each to feel successful.
- Activities varied between individual, paired, small group and
whole group arrangements to give members the opportunity to develop
positive social skills in a number of peer group settings.
- At each week’s conclusion the children received homework
assignments to complete with parents or siblings to allow carryover
of the concepts taught.
Evaluation of the group was based on facilitator observations,
parental pre/post-questionnaires, and the children’s own comments
about the group. As the Kid’s Club progressed, facilitators
saw significant increases in several of the children’s abilities
to successfully participate in the group. Parental reports indicated
an overall increase in their children’s social skills. Parents
commented that their children were, “more interested in playing
with other kids,” “called friends on the phone to come
over to play,” “showed increased self-confidence,”
and “had better use of words when approaching someone new.”
Most importantly, the children thoroughly enjoyed the group. Many
frequently asked when the next Kid’s Club would be and looked
forward to attending throughout the week.
The program was met with great enthusiasm by the parents and children.
Parents expressed that they wanted the group to run for a longer
time. The hope is that Kid’s Club will soon be led on a bi-weekly
basis throughout the school year, and after “graduating”
children will transition to the FASt Friends teen club.
Special thanks to Jean Deitz, PhD, OTR/L, FAOTA and Tracy Jirikowic,
PhD, OTR/L for their guidance and advice in the development of this
program. Their input was invaluable in successfully implementing
return to top
My name is CJ Lutke and I live in Surrey, B.C. I am 22 years old.
I was a diagnosed with FASD when I was a baby. I weighed 2 lbs
and 9 ounces when I was born, and spent six months in the ICU for
babies. I had many things wrong with me and needed lots of surgeries.
I had seizures and breathing problems too.
I went to a foster home, and then I was adopted when I was 14 months
old by Mom and Dad, who already had Sera and Michael, my biological
sister and brother.
I have another birth sister, Ann, who I met a few weeks ago.
Our birth mother died when I was 11 years old from her alcoholism,
which is a disease. She did not cause FASD on purpose. She had a
disease and needed help that she did not get. I am pretty sure she
had FASD herself.
Alcoholism is like FAS—you can’t switch it
off with a button.
Growing up, school was very hard. I don’t remember a lot
of it for which I am glad. I found a journal that I kept the other
day, and it really reminded me of how bad school was. But I kept
on trying and I finished school, even though I did not get a graduation
certificate. At the time, it was a big accomplishment for me. If
I had to do it again, I wouldn’t bother to finish. It was
a waste of time for me. They set up this whole thing where you have
anxiety attacks all the time because you are so worried about missing
assignments and forgetting things and failing.
I love my family and they mean everything to me. If it wasn’t
for them, I don’t think I would be as successful as I am.
They are not just my family, they are my friends and helpers. I
don’t have very many other friends. I hang out with family.
I have one friend, Nicole. I have had her since grade six. She
just graduated from BCIT [British Columbia Institute of Technology]
and wants to work with people with FASD, which is really cool. When
we hang out, FASD does not really come up. I’ll have my troubles,
like money, but I have always had that ever since we knew each other
so it’s not embarrassing to me or her. It’s just normal.
She helps when I need it and doesn’t when I don’t.
I still kind of avoid social situations because I don’t want
to feel or look stupid. It takes A LOT of preparation to go out
to a restaurant, for instance. Like we have to go before, and look
at the menu and figure out what I will have, and I have to know
exactly what to say.
After high school, I went to the Kwantlan College Program for people
with disabilities, especially the FASD class. Marsha, my teacher,
made school relevant. It made sense to me. It was useful stuff and
stuff I could do and stuff that would help me in the future, like
get a job.
Seriously, who needs to memorize a periodic table of elements or
know when Buddha was born?? What am I going to do with that information
when I still have trouble counting change or telling time?
Kwantlan helped me get a part-time job at Winners [a Canadian discount
chain]. I LOVE IT SO MUCH!!!!! The people I work with are just SO
wonderful!!!! I didn’t know that people could be like that.
I look forward to going to work every day that I work. I love what
I do there. They never expect me to do what I cannot do. I am always
bragging about how wonderful Winners is. I feel safe to tell that
I have FASD, and they are proud of me. It is SO different than school
where people were mean.
Even change is easier there. If something changes, it’s OKAY
there. They help make it work.
Some people in my life have really helped me.
My Mom and Dad and older brothers and sisters
always help me. They never make me feel stupid. My Mom has all kinds
of little tricks for me so I know what to do. They are all very
patient with me.
Marsha, my teacher at Kwantlan helped me
a lot. She made many extra copies of everything, she colour-coded
things, she put schedules up, she explained things REALLY good so
I could understand them, we got lots of breaks whenever we got stressed,
she wrote in our planners, she didn’t talk and write at the
same time, or expect us to write if she was talking (like taking
notes is impossible), she did things SLOW, she went on job interviews
with me, she came to the job sites all the time. She explained things
REALLY WELL about work.
Nicole is a real friend and does not make
me feel different. She is really smart, but she never dumped me
because I wasn’t like the other smart kids.
Managers at work – I am sure I ask
the same questions over and over, but it is okay to ask questions
there. I get a list every day and it is very routine.
My life is going well.
I just wish I could take the bus, but I get lost so easily because
I cannot do directions or tell where I am. I have problems with
visual spatial things. I still can’t do left and right very
well. (Like I still can’t tell which left to take because
there are 2 different lefts and 2 different rights and they keep
changing.) I get lost even in my own neighbourhood where I have
lived for 10 years.
I also wish I didn’t get tired so easily from things like
work. I find I can’t do social things very much if I work
because it takes all my energy to concentrate and think and remember.
I don’t think I could ever work full time. I need to come
home and sleep. So, it’s a really good thing I like my job!!!!
I want you to know that I am honest, I love my family and the people
I care about and I love my cat. I am not bad, or useless or stupid.
I don’t know anyone with FASD who is. I have always tried
my best, even when people thought I wasn’t. I work really
hard to be the best person I can be.
I would also like everyone to know that no one causes FASD on purpose.
Although I would rather not have FASD, it’s not the end of
the world. A lot of blame is placed on people with FASD and on people
with alcoholism that shouldn’t be. I think I know what it
must feel like to have alcoholism.
I would like everyone to remember that FAS is what I have, it is
NOT who I am. I am a person with FASD, NOT
an FASD person.
return to top
My name is David. I have FASD. I am 17 years old and live in Vancouver,
B.C. I was diagnosed with FASD when I was 9 years old. I understand
a lot about it. I have a birth brother and a sister who also have
FASD and partial FASD. I am the oldest. We live together in our
When I was little, I lived with my birth mother. She had a problem
with alcohol and drugs. She did all her life. She did not do this
I went to my first foster home when I was a baby. I was in lots
of foster homes because my birth mother was not able to take care
of us. I am pretty sure she had FASD too. Lots of things happened
to us. My brother had three broken arms in one year and I got a
big scar on my forehead. All of us were in different foster homes
until the last one. Then we all got adopted together when I was
9. I used to see my birth mother once a month when we would take
her out for brunch. She died two years ago from AIDS.
How FAS has affected me
I am very small for my age. I have always been the smallest kid
in my class even though I am the oldest kid in the class. I had
to have braces on my teeth because my jaw was too small for my adult
teeth to come in properly and they were all crooked. I don’t
feel pain. I am not sure what it is supposed to feel like when people
ask me. You can stomp on my toes and it does not hurt. My fingers
are not straight and they go skinny at the tip. My fingernails don’t
grow hardly at all.
My face doesn’t look FASD anymore because when you get older
and you have FASD, your face changes and you mostly look just like
other people. But this does not mean I can grow out of it. I can’t.
I have it for the rest of my life. My brain is smaller than a regular
one, so I have a smaller head, too. I have really big problems with
learning all kinds of things even though I am not mentally handicapped
like my sister.
Math!!!! It feels like it is impossible for me to do. Money is
hard for me to count, and I get mixed up with stuff like tax. I
don’t understand how much things cost and get mixed up a lot
of the time. I still can only sort of tell time on a round clock.
I use a digital clock and watch which works better, but I still
never know how long things take and how long I have been doing things.
I have a terrible memory!! I forget things all the time. I forget
things pretty soon after I learn them. This is very frustrating
because I have to learn it again. I forget all kinds of things,
like what I just said and where I put something, or what happened
a little while ago. Sometimes, I even forget I just ate dinner.
I have a really hard time paying attention and I get hyper when
there is too much going on. It was very hard for me to stay in the
classroom. The resource room worked better for me because the teacher
would sit by me and go step-by-step and explain it my way, simply.
It was quieter and had less distractions. But I don’t go to
school any more because high school was just too hard and they would
not let me go to the resource room any longer.
When people talk to me with big words, I don’t understand
them. You have to use small words and slow down and it takes longer
for me to figure out what you mean. Sometimes, I never do. I have
to think over what I say, too, because sometimes it doesn’t
make sense to me either.
It is hard for me to get friends and keep them. Kids used to pick
on me, and be mean to me a lot. However, I do have some friends
Things I am good at
I am good at gym and sports. I am an excellent swimmer and I am
good at diving. We have a pool so I can do this a lot and use up
my energy. I am good at all outdoor activities. I am also very good
at building things and putting things together. If you do the math
and directions part, I can do the rest.
I was a good reading tutor to the Grade One student I helped my
last year at elementary school. I was also a buddy to a Grade One
and Two classes. That means I helped them with art, stuff on the
computer, and I wrote out the rough copy for them of their journals.
I had to set a good example for them of proper behaviour.
I have done excellent science fair reports on FASD. I know a lot
about it and I can teach people about it. For the past 3 years,
I have taught medical students in second year about FASD. I do that
for 5 weeks, 2 afternoons a week. I get paid for this, and it is
an important job. I think they learn a lot from me, and I get really
good evaluations. I also have spoken at conferences and adoption
I also take care of my sister’s dog when she is at work –
which is another job I get paid for. I love animals and take really
good care of him. I also have a nephew who is 6 who thinks I am
the greatest. I help to look after him, too, sort of like with the
Grade Ones and Twos.
What I want you to know
I need reminding about most things. I DO NOT forget on
purpose!! I think I will always need help with how money works –
like which one is better to buy. I need my Mom to help me so I don’t
spend all my money, but I really don’t like that and get frustrated.
Then I spend my money and get mad because I don’t have any.
I don’t know the difference from 10 minutes to an hour so
I need other people to help me so I am not late, too early or forget.
Whenever I get frustrated, I explode. It’s not because I
am a bad person. I am a good person. I just get really frustrated
because things don’t make sense no matter what I do sometimes.
I have a hard time judging things. Lots of times I make mistakes
because I don’t understand, no matter how hard I try. I also
won’t ask questions, because I don’t want to look like
an idiot, not because I am not listening. I actually listen really,
I need people to be patient with me.
I AM NOT LAZY!!!!!! NO MATTER WHAT!!!! I ALWAYS TRY MY BEST!!!
return to top
Ireland’s Trouble With Alcohol
In recent decades all of Ireland has seen both a startling increase
in the amount of alcohol consumed and a sea change for the worse
in Irish drinking habits. Alcohol is declared to cost the Irish
exchequer €2.65 billion annually, but this figure does not
include any of the costs of either the primary or secondary effects
of prenatal exposure to alcohol.
The public is well aware of the rising problem. Recent research
shows that, “82 percent of people in Ireland believe that
Irish alcohol consumption levels are a problem,” while, “51
percent of Irish people believe the government is not doing enough
to address alcohol problems,” (Alcohol in Ireland –
Time for Action: A Survey of Irish Attitudes. Alcohol Action
In 2002, concerned organisations and individuals, reacting to the
public outcry about the costs of alcohol-fuelled damage, created
an umbrella group called Alcohol Action Ireland. In addition, as
there has been very little awareness about the serious issue of
prenatal exposure to alcohol, a group of professionals and foster
caregivers founded Fetal Alcohol Support Ireland (FAS Ireland) that
same year so that the rising tide of concern would also lift the
FASD boat. These organisations, along with those affected by alcoholism
and FASD, are operating in a difficult political and societal environment.
Alcohol issues come within the remit [authority] of the Minister
for Health and Children, and that department published National
Alcohol Policy Ireland (1996), the Strategic Task Force
on Alcohol Interim Report (2002), and the Strategic Task
Force on Alcohol Second Report (2004), having established both
The Strategic Task Force on Alcohol, (STFA) and the post of national
Alcohol Policy Advisor to the government. Interestingly, the National
Alcohol Policy Ireland (1996) is not available anymore, either
in hard copy or from the Web site of the Department of Health and
Children. This may be reflective of other changes in the area of
addressing alcohol’s impact on society.
Mary Harney, Ireland’s current Minister for Health and Children
as well as Deputy Prime Minister, dispensed with the National Policy
Advisor on Alcohol position in late 2005, stating that health promotion
and the selection of a new advisor regarding alcohol would become
the responsibility of the newly-formed Health Services Executive.
So, although the ultimate responsibility for alcohol policy and
legislation remains with her department, the Minister now has no
such official policy advisor.
In addition, Minister Harney announced the establishment of a system
whereby advertising of alcohol would be subject to a voluntary code,
as opposed to one under-pinned by legislation. It would appear that
this is very much according to the wishes of the alcohol industry.
Meanwhile, alcohol – a drug, a teratogen and a poison, and
“no ordinary commodity” (No Ordinary Commodity.
Babor, 2003) – is classified as a food by the European Community.
Unfortunately, new Irish legislation, The Groceries Order,
now allows retailers to sell alcohol “below cost,” furthering
hampering consumption-reduction efforts. Alcohol products also are
not required by law to warn about harmful side effects. Such is
not the case with tobacco products.
Alcohol and pregnancy…. officially
Only two paragraphs of the Strategic Task Force on Alcohol
Interim Report highlight some of the dangers of drinking and
pregnancy, mentioning, “foetal alcohol syndrome.” The
report’s first directive, which addressed at-risk groups,
was that, “The Department of Health will encourage pregnant
women and women who are planning to become pregnant to avoid alcohol
consumption especially during the critical first few months of pregnancy.”
Minister Micheál Martin, launching the Strategic Task
Force on Alcohol Second Report, announced on national television
that his two particular areas of priority would be, “young
people and alcohol,” and, “alcohol and pregnancy,”
even though the report merely recommended that “alcohol related
attitudes and behaviour surrounding pregnancy be evaluated.”
Minister Martin was moved to another department within weeks.
However, President of Ireland Mary McAleese did warn young people
attending the Youth Forum on Alcohol Consumption in Dublin last
year about the dangers of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, and the government’s
most recent official publication on pregnancy states, “Do
not take alcohol in pregnancy as it can harm your baby,” (Maternity
and Infant Scheme: Information for Expectant Mothers. Department
of Health and Children, 2005). This is encouraging, as previous
official publications have given varying and sometimes conflicting
Drinking and Pregnancy in Ireland
Two recent studies showed that 85 percent (Walsh, 2004) and 82
percent (Kearney, 2005) of women here drank in pregnancy. This rate
of consumption is more than three and a half times the rate reported
for U.S. women, where the occurrence of FASD is 1 percent of all
Unfortunately, some gynecologists in Ireland still do not advise
women that the placenta does not protect the fetus from alcohol,
or even that abstention from alcohol is best for the baby. The doctors’
lack of advising patients is irrespective of the fact that fourteen
years ago, Ellen O’Donovan and her son Malcolm were Ireland’s
first international ambassadors to highlight the dangers of alcohol
in pregnancy (National Geographic. Feb. 1992). Or that
Dr. Desmond Corrigan’s warning about FAS in 1994 included
reference to findings of a reduction in I.Q. at age 4, and both
attention- and reaction-time deficits in children by age 7 (Facts
About Drug Abuse in Ireland. Dept. of Health, 1994).
FAS Ireland steps in
Under-recognition and under-diagnosis are reflected in the dearth
of FASD-specific services for those affected and their families,
caregivers, schools and communities. Members of FAS Ireland give
information talks, participate in radio discussions and media interviews,
and provide articles for publications. We submit oral and written
statements to inform policy-makers, service providers and legislators
about how FASD affects their particular area of responsibility,
highlighting how the needs of people with FASD can be understood
and provided for in each relevant sector.
The past eighteen months have been particularly busy for FAS Ireland,
as local and international experts have helped to research and advocate
on behalf of Ireland’s youngest generation.
- Dr. Kieran O’Malley, Consultant in Adolescent Psychiatry
at the Young People's Centre of South and East Belfast Trust in
Belfast, gave three talks on FASD, two in Belfast along with Dr.
Truman Coggins, and one in Dublin. Dr. O’Malley has been
a source of inspiration and encouragement, and his concern and
support are very much appreciated.
- Dr. Peter Hepper of Queen’s University, Belfast, has
been producing important research in the field of fetal behaviour
as a result of exposure to alcohol.
- Dr. Susan Ryan, Professor of Special Education at the University
of Alaska, Anchorage, spent a year researching services in Ireland
for students with FASD in her role as Fulbright Scholar at the
National Institute for the Study of Learning Difficulties at Trinity
College in Dublin.
- And Irish psychiatrist Dr. Siobhan Barry has been a tremendous
advocate regarding issues of alcohol and pregnancy in Ireland.
In addition, FAS Ireland's
Web site has proven to be a fantastic resource for exchanging
information with interested parties.
Fortunately, Ireland is waking up to FASD and the far-reaching
effects of prenatal exposure to alcohol. We are spreading vital
details about prevention and treatment in order to change how we
Irish view drinking while pregnant.
return to top
It is a birth defect caused by the mother drinking while she
I am small
I have a different face (not too noticeable anymore), bone
problems and lots of learning problems
do not do this on purpose
Do not be mean or mad or blame them
Alcoholism is a disease
am 17 years old and have had fas all my life
I will have it forever
It will never go away
Don’t be mean or mad or blame
Things I would like teachers to know
- I always try my best
- I am not lazy
- Telling me to try harder does not help
- Lighten the work load
- I need extra time to complete work (accept lates)
- Explain things simply
- I need things to be repeated many, many times
- I need minimum distractions (noise, people, other sounds and
- I don’t get hyper on purpose – I can’t help
it. I would like to, but I can’t
- There are some things I cannot learn no matter what!!! Or who
- I get frustrated easily, when I can’t do things I think
I am supposed to
- I learn things slower than other people
- I don’t mean to forget my homework
- I am not trying to be annoying on purpose
- I move around in my desk a lot of times (fidgeting)
- I lose things a lot!!! (like textbooks)
- I can’t pay attention for a long time
- I forget many things (not on purpose – I get just as
frustrated as the teacher!!!)
- I need to ask a lot of questions – sometimes the same
one over and over
- I am not good at organization (I need lots of help)
- I have trouble telling time and I don’t know how long
the classes are. I don’t understand how time works
- I don’t mean to be late for class
- I need to do things in the same order all the time. If I don’t,
my whole day gets messed up!!!
- I need expectations I can meet – different from the other
- My handwriting and drawing skills suck!!!! I have trouble with
hand-eye co-ordination. I can use a computer and it can check
my spelling too
- I love gym but I have a hard time balancing
- Other kids are sometimes a little nasty to me (they don’t
like anyone different or slower)
- Combination locks are impossible (you have to do many directions)
- I need people to talk to me in small words and to slow down
when they talk to me so I can understand what they are talking
- Do not give up on teaching me – I can learn lots of
things – just different things
These are my own thoughts from experience
I wrote this myself
I think these things are true or similar for most kids with FAS
return to top
Our Lives with FASD
Members of the Lutke family in British Columbia, Canada submitted
the following writings and art. CJ, David and Thomas were all diagnosed
with FASD as children, and were adopted by Jan and Lloyd Lutke.
Their family includes 2 biological children and 21 adopted children;
13 of the children have been diagnosed with FASD.
A view of the British Columbia coast, created by Thomas Lutke,
age 14. Thomas has FASD.
return to top
Review of Elizabeth Russell’s “Alcohol
and Pregnancy – a Mother’s Responsible Disturbance”
“Alcohol and Pregnancy – a Mother’s Responsible
Disturbance,” was written by the birth mother of two
children with FASD, and describes her experiences with alcohol dependence
and its consequences for her family. Russell explains how she was
initially mystified by her two sons’ health and behavior problems
and describes the long process of discovery that enabled her to
link the source of those problems with her alcoholism.
Russell gives a gripping account of her pain in realizing that
her own behavior had harmed her children and so greatly impacted
all of their lives. She talks about the fear and anxiety that many
parents feel because their children with FASD have serious mental
health problems, repeatedly fail in school and work and often have
suicidal tendencies. Despite these fears, this book demonstrates
Russell’s amazing skills as an advocate for her children,
and details how she was able to obtain the appropriate services
for her children.
Her account is appealing on several levels as she describes her
personal experience with FASD, diagnosis, treatment, management,
and advocacy. She explains the condition of FASD very clearly; enabling
the book’s contents to serve as a series of “red flags”
others can use to identify possible symptoms of FASD in their own
children’s lives. She describes the treatment and intervention
approaches that worked for her family, along with those that didn’t,
which may be helpful to others. In addition, her grass-roots activism
to improve the knowledge base and recognition of FASD in Australia
is a "how to" manual for those who wish to follow that
same path. Finally, the aspect that made this book most appealing
to me was that Russell wrote not only of her own experiences, she
also included the perspective of her husband, their pediatrician,
her sons’ girlfriends and that of her sons themselves.
In “Alcohol and Pregnancy,” Russell hypothesizes that
her delay in understanding her sons’ difficulties was partially
due to the lack of recognition in Australia of the effects of prenatal
alcohol exposure. She also felt that, if she had been living in
America or Canada, she wouldn’t have had the same difficulties
obtaining a diagnosis. While it is certainly true that knowledge
of FASD has lagged behind in Australia, and there could be considerable
resistance to focusing on the disorder because of the central nature
of alcohol in the Australian culture, many people in America and
Canada will agree that there are still many barriers to gaining
a diagnosis and appropriate services right here in North America.
Despite her difficulty in finding an appropriate diagnosis, Russell
was very fortunate in being able to acquire services for her children
that help them live as independently as possible.
This book tells a story that is all too familiar to anyone who
works, lives or interacts with individuals with FASD; however, Russell
details her story in such a compelling way that it is well worth
reading. Russell blends her personal experiences with current scientific
knowledge to create a very well written and well-researched book.